Setting Goodie Display Options

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The final step in every Instant Answer is displaying it to the user. All Instant Answers display in the "AnswerBar", which is the area above the organic search results. The way each Instant Answer is displayed and behaves is determined by a set of display options and events. This document shows you how to set these options for a Goodie.

Goodie answerbar

Setting Display Properties in a Goodie

When developing a Goodie, display options can be set either in your back end (Perl) or frontend (JavaScript) code. Most display properties can be set in either. Some display properties, by their nature, can only be set in the front end.

Here is a quick summary of the break down of display options:

Display Property

Can Set in Perl (Back end)

Can Set in JavaScript (Front end)












Setting Display Options on the Back End

Most options can be defined in the Goodie's back end, the Perl file. These options are set by returning as a hash called structured_answer when the Perl file finishes running. This hash is returned alongside the $plaintext string version of your Goodie result, used for the API):

return $plaintext,
structured_answer => {

Specifying options in Perl is the most straightforward method, but there are several optional properties that cannot be specified on the server-side. These must be specified in the Goodie's front end, in a JavaScript file.

The following is a code summary of how display options are set in your Goodie Perl file:

return $plaintext,
structured_answer => {
id => String,
name => String,
data => Array or Hash (in the case of a single item),
meta => {
searchTerm => String,
itemType => String,
primaryText => String,
secondaryText => String,
sourceName => String,
sourceLogo => String,
sourceUrl => String (url),
sourceIcon => Boolean,
sourceIconUrl => String (url),
snippetChars => Integer
templates => {
group => String,
options => Hash,
# Note that while the following may reference JavaScript variables,
# they are still specified as strings in Perl
item => String,
item_mobile => String,
detail => String,
detail_custom => String,
detail_mobile => String,
item_detail => String,
variants => Hash,
elClass => Hash,
view => String,
model => String,

For an example of how this works, take a look at the final return statement of the Unicornify Goodie Perl file:

return "This is a unique unicorn for $_",
structured_answer => {
data => {
subtitle => "Unique unicorn",
title => "$_",
url => unicornify_url(email => $_, size => "200"),
image => unicornify_url(email => $_, size => "100")
meta => {
sourceName => "Unicornify",
sourceUrl => ''
templates => {
group => "icon",
item => 0,
moreAt => 1,
variants => {
iconTitle => 'large',
iconImage => 'large'

For more information on each property and its usage, visit the display options reference.

Setting Goodie Display Options on the Front end

While most display properties can be set in a Goodie's Perl file, others by their nature must be specified in the front end part of the code. These are:

To specify any of these, simply create a JavaScript file in share/goodie/INSTANT_ANSWER_ID/INSTANT_ANSWER_ID.js. For example, using the "BP to ms" Instant Answer as an example (where the id is set to 'bpmto_ms'):

Create a file at share/goodie/bpmto_ms/bpmto_ms.js, which creates a namespace and a build function.

DDH.bpmto_ms = DDH.bpmto_ms || {}; // create the namespace in case it doesn't exist = function(ops) {
return {
// Specify any frontend display properties here

The build function takes ops as an argument; this represents the structured_answer hash from the back end Perl file as a JavaScript object.

Your build function returns an object with any front end display properties you want to set. For example, you could set an event:

return {
onShow: function() {
console.log("onShow for bpmto_ms");

Or you could set a normalize function - and so on:

return {
normalize: function(item){
return {
title: item.heading

Additionally, it is worth noting that all of the display options specified in Perl could instead be specified in your JavaScript - if you so desired.

For example:

return {
templates: {
group: 'base',
detail: false,
options: {
// Note that because this is JavaScript, sub-templates are specified
// as function references rather than strings.
content: DDH.bpmto_ms.content

Fun with Goodie JavaScript

Goodie's front end components allow you to do much more than set display properties and events. You may also execute any JavaScript you'd like to do interesting and delightful things.

Continuing from the example above from the BP to ms Instant Answer, we created a JavaScript file at share/goodie/bpmto_ms/bpmto_ms.js. Inside this file, we declare a build function.

Everything returned by your build function is used to extend your structured_answer Perl hash (from your Goodie's .pm file). However, you can use the function to run other JavaScript, making use of jQuery. = function(ops) {
// Execute delightful JavaScript here
// with access to JQuery
return {
// Specify any frontend display properties here
onShow: function(){
// Consider using an event, such as onShow, to run your code at the right time

Consider using events as the starting points for your code. You can also create a css file to reference, for example share/goodie/bpmto_ms/bpmto_ms.css.

You might use Goodie JavaScript to create an in-browser game related to certain search results. Or an easter egg, for fun. The community is excited to review pull requests for fun and delightful additions to DuckDuckGo's Instant Answers.